Chrysotile asbestos use is not safe and must be banned
On February 22, 2013, one hundred and forty-three scientists and organisations from thirty countries released the following Statement:
We condemn in the strongest possible terms the dangerous misinformation that the International Chrysotile Association is disseminating in its effort to defeat a proposed ban on asbestos in Pakistan.
The International Chrysotile Association “actively represents the interest of Chrysotile Industry world over”.
In a letter dated January 31, 2013 to Dr. Mahmood A. Khwaja (Senior Adviser, Chemicals and Sustainable Industrial Development, Sustainable Development Policy Institute of Pakistan), the Chairman of the International Chrysotile Association (Mr. Jean-Marc Leblond) expresses the opposition of that Association to the recommendation made, in January 2013, by the Pakistan National Assembly’s Standing Committee on Human Resource Development to ban the import and use of asbestos.
Mr. Leblond is a long-time salesman of asbestos. From 1986 to 2007, he was Vice President in charge of Sales for LAB Chrysotile Inc., a Quebec asbestos mining company. From 2008 to 2011, he was President of Chrysotile Canada Inc., the marketing agency for Quebec asbestos mining companies. He sat as a director of the discredited asbestos lobby organisation, the Chrysotile Institute. Presently, he is President of Polyser Inc., a consulting company in international trade.
The directors of the International Chrysotile Association do not have scientific credentials. They are executives and promoters of the asbestos industry, with a vested interest in selling asbestos.
Scientists and scientific organisations have condemned these asbestos lobby organisations for “endangering public health by disseminating misleading and untruthful information about chrysotile asbestos, especially in the world’s emerging economies.”
The information that the International Chrysotile Association (I.C.A.) puts forward in its letter is false.
1) The I.C.A. claims in its letter that “the scientific evidence is overwhelming which supports the safe and responsible use of chrysotile.”
In fact, the overwhelming scientific evidence shows that chrysotile asbestos causes deadly diseases and that “safe use” of chrysotile asbestos has not ever been documented. Even in Canada, a highly regulated and technologically advanced country, where chrysotile asbestos has been mined and used in the province of Quebec for a hundred years, all the Quebec government’s directors of Public Health warn that “safe use of chrysotile asbestos” cannot be achieved and that Quebec’s “safe use” policy has been a complete failure. The present government of Quebec has consequently ended its support for the Quebec asbestos industry. Because of past use of asbestos, Quebec’s Occupational Health & Safety Commission reports that asbestos-related diseases continue to represent 70% of deaths caused by occupational diseases.
While a handful of scientists financed by the asbestos industry, such as those the I.C.A. cites in its letter, deny the health risks of chrysotile asbestos and promote its continued used, not a single reputable scientific body in the world supports this position.
The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organization and the World Bank have all called for an end to the use of chrysotile asbestos. Chrysotile asbestos represents 100% of the global asbestos trade today. Over the past century, chrysotile asbestos represented 95% of all asbestos sold, with all other forms of asbestos representing 5% of asbestos sold. The WHO cites 107,000 occupational deaths yearly from exposure to asbestos.
The Union for the International Control of Cancer (2012), comprising more than 700 member organisations in 155 countries, the World Federation of Public Health Associations (2005), the International Commission on Occupational Health (2000), the International Social Security Association (2004), the Collegium Ramazzini (1999, 20105) and the International Trade Union Confederation (2004) – representing 175 million workers in 151 countries – have all called for a global ban on the use of all forms of asbestos, particularly chrysotile asbestos.
A recent Position Statement published by the Joint Policy Committee of Societies of Epidemiology (JPC-SE)6, endorsed by numerous scientific organisations around the world and individual scientists8, calls for a global ban on the mining, use and export of all forms of asbestos.
2) The I.C.A. claims in its letter that chrysotile cement building materials, “with the application of simple control measures … do not present any significant risk to workers, the general public or the environment.”
In fact, the WHO has particularly emphasized the dangers of chrysotile cement building materials, noting that: “The workforce involved is large, exposure is difficult to control, and in-place materials have the potential to deteriorate and pose a risk to those carrying out alterations, maintenance, and demolition.”
3) The I.C.A. claims in its letter that others forms of asbestos are hazardous, but that chrysotile asbestos “can and is being used safely, i.e. at low exposures it does not present a detectable risk to health.”
In fact, the scientific consensus is overwhelming that, as the WHO states, there is no safe exposure level to chrysotile asbestos and the only way to prevent epidemics of asbestos related diseases is to stop the use of all forms of asbestos. Not a single reputable scientific organisation in the world agrees with the assertion made by Mr. Leblond and the asbestos lobby.
4) The I.C.A. claims in its letter that substitute fibers are “non-regulated, more expensive, less durable and, unlike the minimal risk associated with chrysotile, their potential risk to the health of workers is unknown.”
In fact, as the WHO and the World Bank state, safer non-fibrous and fibrous alternatives to asbestos are available and have been satisfactorily used for decades. Studies carried out in Thailand show that the price difference is minimal. Use of chrysotile asbestos, however, causes enormous economic costs in health care, as well as in safety measures when buildings are constructed, renovated, repaired or demolished, or after a natural disaster causes devastation, such as an earthquake or hurricane. These costs are externalized by the asbestos industry and paid by citizens and governments in both money and lives.
According to Phaskorn Buranawit, the managing director of Siam Fibre Cement, the leading manufacturer of fibre cement roof tiles in Thailand, the purchase price difference between asbestos and non-asbestos roofing products is only 2 to 5%.
5) The I.C.A. claims in its letter that 129 countries Member States of the WHO, including the U.S. and Canada, are using asbestos today.
In fact, use of asbestos has virtually ceased in the U.S. and Canada. In 1980, the U.S. used 350,000 tonnes of asbestos. In 2011, the U.S. used 961 tonnes – 0.3% of the 1980 figure.
In 2011, just five countries – China, India, Russia, Brazil and Kazakhstan – accounted for 74% of all asbestos consumed globally. Between 2000 and 2012, the number of countries banning asbestos tripled from 18 countries to 54; the number of countries using asbestos dropped by 53% in this time period. By 2012, only 15 countries were using more than 500 tonnes of asbestos a year. (Note: The correct figure is 35 countries were using more than 500 tonnes of asbestos in 2011. The typographical error on the IBAS website, stating 15 countries, was corrected to say 35 countries on February 23, 2013.)
In every country where asbestos has been used, it has created a financial and human disaster. Consequently, more and more countries refuse to use asbestos. The asbestos industry, in its efforts to protect its profits, therefore targets countries, such as Pakistan, that are considering a ban on asbestos. The industry is indifferent to the economic and human costs that Pakistan will face if it allows continued use of asbestos.
6) The scientist that the I.C.A. most strongly relies on in its letter is consultant, David Bernstein, Ph.D., who claims that chrysotile asbestos is quickly expelled from the lungs and poses little risk to health.
In its letter, the I.C.A. states that a recent study – Health risk of chrysotile revisited by Bernstein et al – is “of paramount relevance to your deliberations”. The I.C.A. “urge your and your colleagues’ close attention to its contents”. The I.C.A. did not disclose that the I.C.A. had funded this study.
While Dr. Bernstein presents himself as an independent scientist, he admitted, when questioned by a judge, that all his studies on chrysotile asbestos had been funded by the chrysotile asbestos industry and by corporations facing litigation cases for harm caused by chrysotile asbestos. Dr. Bernstein admitted to the judge that not a single scientific body anywhere agreed with his views on chrysotile asbestos.
Dr. Bernstein is reported to have received a million dollars from the Canadian chrysotile asbestos lobby organisation (the Asbestos Institute, now renamed the Chrysotile Institute) to carry out his study Biopersistence of Canadian Chrysotile, which is #1 in the list of studies put forward by the I.C.A. in their letter. The Asbestos Institute released Dr. Bernstein’s study, with great fanfare, on September 9, 2003. In its media release, the Asbestos Institute stated “Buoyed by the results of the biopersistence study on Quebec chrysotile, the Asbestos Institute will now focus on (…) encouraging various players to increase their consumption of chrysotile”.
In fact, many chrysotile fibres are not expelled from the lung, but are moved to the pleura where mesotheliomas occur. Studies from France, the U.S. and Japan show that the most common form of fibre found in the pleura of mesothelioma cases is short chrysotile fibres, sometimes the only fibre type found.
Furthermore, other recognized human carcinogens have much shorter residence in the body (formaldehyde, benzene, vinyl chloride, benzidine) than the mineral fibres of chrysotile.
The JPC-SE Position Statement on Asbestos points out how the asbestos industry has undermined public health policy: “Similar to the tobacco industry, the asbestos industry has funded and manipulated research to manufacture findings favourable to its own interests.” The Position Statement documents how the industry has set up front organizations, which claim that, “while other forms of asbestos are hazardous, chrysotile asbestos is quickly expelled from the lungs and presents little hazard to health.”
The Position Statement emphasizes that: “Independent and reputable scientific authorities reject these claims as erroneous, dangerous, and deceptive.
THEREFORE, WE, THE SIGNERS OF THIS STATEMENT:
· Categorically condemn the dangerous misinformation that the International Chrysotile Association is disseminating, because it will cause unnecessary disease and death.
· Categorically condemn the efforts of the International Chrysotile Association to undermine a public health initiative in Pakistan to protect the people of Pakistan from asbestos-related diseases and death.
· Call on the asbestos industry to cease its interference in public health initiatives in other countries, since these initiatives should be dealt with by the people of those countries without interference by foreign agencies who are pursuing their own vested interests.
· Encourage the Government of Pakistan to recognize the letter from the International Chrysotile Association as the dangerous misinformation it is.
· Emphasize that the scientific consensus is clear that chrysotile asbestos causes harm to health, that it cannot be safely used and that the use of any form of asbestos, including chrysotile asbestos, should be globally banned.
· Urge the Government of Pakistan to protect the health of its citizens by banning the import and use of asbestos, as the Pakistan National Assembly’s Standing Committee on Human Resource Development has recommended.
NOTE: Titles and affiliations for individual signers are given for identification purposes only.
DR. GUADALUPE AGUILAR MADRID, PhD, Unidad de Investigación en Salud en el Trabajo, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI.IMSS, Mexico
DR. MICHELINE BEAUDRY, Ph.D., professeure retraitée, l’Université Laval, Québec, Canada
DR WARREN BELL, MD, former President, Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment, Canada
DR. DENISE BOWES, MD, CCFP, rural family physician (retired); member Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment, Canada
DR. JAMES BROPHY, PhD, University of Windsor; former Executive Director, Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers, Canada
PROF ALEX BURDORF, PHD, Chair in Determinants of Population Health, Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
DR. CHRIS CARLSTEN, MD, MPH, Associate Professor of Medicine, Chair in Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease; Director, Occupational Lung Disease Clinic; Associate Faculty, School of Population and Public Health Associate, UBC James Hogg Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada
DR BARRY CASTLEMAN, ScD, Environmental Consultant, USA; author, Asbestos: Medical and Legal Aspects; Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini.
DR SANJAY CHATURVEDI, MD, FAMS, FIPHA, FIAPSM, Professor & Head, Dept. of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India
PROF. MARCELO ENRIQUE CONTI, Ph.D. Department of Management, Sapienza, University of Rome; International Commission on Occupational Health (Toxicology of Metals & Nanomaterial Workers’ Health Scientific Committees); Editor in Chief, International Journal of Environment and Health, Rome, Italy
DR. LILIAN CORRA, MD, International Secretary, International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE); Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Italy; President, Asociación Argentina de Médicos por el Medio Ambiente (AAMMA); Director, Career of Medical Specialists on Health and Environment , School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
DR. HELENO R. CORRÊA FILHO, Epidemiologist – Associate Professor, UNICAMP – FCM – DSC – Brazil
DR. CARL F. CRANOR, Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, Faculty Member, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Department of Philosophy, University of California, USA
DR ELIZABETH CULLEN, MB, MCh, BAO, M Sc, Ph D, member of Irish Doctors’ Environmental Association, Ireland
DR. AQIEL DALVIE, Associate Professor; Programme Leader, Chemical Toxicity and Exposures, University of Cape Town, South Africa
DR. ROBERT C. DICKSON, MD, Calgary, AB, Canada
DR ANA DIGON, Medica toxicóloga, Primera Cátedra de Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
DR. DAVID EGILMAN, MD, MPH, Editor, International Journal Of Occupational and Environmental Health; Clinical Professor Department of Family Medicine, Brown University, USA
DR. CATHEY EISNER FALVO, MD, MPH, President, International Society of Doctors for the Environment; Professor and Chair, International Public Health, New York Medical College (retired); Professor of Pediatrics, NYMC (retired), USA
DR. ERICA FISCHER, M.D., University of Toronto Health Service, Canada
DR ARTHUR L. FRANK, MD, PhD, Professor of Public Health, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Italy
DR. ERICA FRANK, MD, MPH, Professor and Canada Research Chair, University of British Columbia, School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine; President and Executive Director, NextGenU.org
DAVID GEE, Senior Adviser, Science Policy, Emerging Issues, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark
FERNANDA GIANNASI, Civil engineer, post-graduate in Health and Safety Engineering; Labor Inspector, Brazilian Federal Ministry of Labor and Employment; Coordinator, GIA — Inter-Institutional Group on Asbestos; Coordinator, Virtual Citizens’ Network for the Banning of Asbestos in Latin America; founder, ABREA, the Brazilian Association of People Exposed to Asbestos, Brazil
DR BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, MD, Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, USA
DR MORRIS GREENBERG, MB, FRCP, FFOM, former, HM Medical Inspector of Factories, England
DR TEE L. GUIDOTTI, MD, MPH, FRCPC, Emeritus President of the Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment
DR. W. ANDREW HARRIS, MD, Senior Lecturer, Global Health Center, Oregon Health & Science University, USA
DR. MARC HINDRY, PhD, professor, Université Paris Diderot, France
DR ANDREW HOULSON, Environmental Scientist, Eng.D, Canada
DR. HOWARD HU, M.D., M.P.H., Sc.D. Director/Dean & Professor, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Canada
DR JAMES HUFF, PhD., Staff Scientist Chemical Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Research, Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
DR. PETER F. INFANTE, D.D.S., Dr.P.H., F.A.C.E., Peter F. Infante Consulting, LLC; Formerly Director, Office of Standards Review, Health Standards Program, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), Washington, D.C., USA
DR. JAYABALAN THAMBYAPPA, MBBS, M.Sc., Consultant, National Poison Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia; Collaborating Center For Drug Information, World Health Organization; President, Persatuan Penasihat Kesihatan Dan Keselamatan Pekerjaan Pulau Pinang; Member, Academy Of Occupational And Environmental Medicine, Malaysia
DR. CUAUHTEMOC A. JUAREZ PEREZ, MSc, MD, Unidad de Investigación en Salud en el Trabajo, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI.IMSS, Mexico
PROF. MOHAMED F JEEBHAY, MBChB, PhD, Director, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
DR. T K JOSHI, Director, OEM Programme, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, New Delhi; Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Italy; Visiting Professor, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, USA
DR. MARGARET KEITH, PhD, University of Windsor; former Research Coordinator, Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers, ON, Canada
DR JOHN R. KEYSERLINGK, MD., MSc., FRCS(C)., FACS, Director, Medicine & Surgical Oncology, Ville Marie Oncology Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
DR KAPIL KHATTER, MD, CCFP, MES, Past President, Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment, Canada
DR. DAVID KING, MBBS, MPH, FRACGP, Senior Lecturer, Discipline of General
Practice: School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Australia
Dr. NAJI KODEIH, Dr. Eng., Long-Term Technical Advisor & Key Environmental Expert, Egyptian Power Transmission Project, Egypt
DR. JOHN KRISTENSEN, MD, CCFP, member, Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment, Canada
DR. VITHAYA KULSOMBOON, PH.D., Associate Professor and Director of Social Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
DR. PHILIP J. LANDRIGAN, MD, MSc, Dean for Global Health, Ethel H. Wise Professor and Chairman, Department of Preventive Medicine; Professor of Pediatrics; Director, Children’s Environmental Health Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
DR CHRISTOPHER W. LEE, MD FRCPC, Medical Oncologist, BC Cancer Agency, Canada
DR. JAMES LEIGH, MD, PhD, Senior Research Consultant, Asbestos Diseases Research Institute, University of Sydney, Australia
DR RICHARD A. LEMEN, Ph.D., MSPH, Assistant Surgeon General (ret.), Rear Admiral, USPHS (ret.); Adjunct Professor, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Italy.
DR. ABBY LIPPMAN, PhD, Professor Emerita, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada
PROFESSOR LESLIE LONDON, Director: School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, South Africa
DR. RICHARD MATZOPOULOS, MPhil (Epi), PhD (Public Health), Honorary Research Associate, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town; Specialist Scientist, Burden of Disease Research Unit, Medical Research Council, South Africa
Dr. JOCK McCULLOCH, Professor of History, School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Australia; fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences, Australia
DR. MELISSA A. McDIARMID, MD, MPH, DABT, Professor, Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology & Public Health; Director, Occupational Health Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, USA
DR. RAMIN MEHRDAD, MD, MPH, Associate professor of Occupational Medicine, Center for Research on Occupational Diseases, Tehran, Iran
DR. DARIO MIRABELLI, MD, Unità di Epidemiologia dei Tumori, Torino, Italy
PROF. DR. HANNS MOSHAMMER, Institute of Environmental Health, Department of Medicine, University of Vienna, Austria
DR ÉRIC NOTEBAERT, MD, MSc, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec; Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment
ZULEICA NYCZ, Civil Society Representative in the National Environment Council (CONAMA), Brazil
ANDREW F. OBERTA, MPH, CIH, The Environmental Consultancy; Certified in Comprehensive Practice by American Board of Industrial Hygiene; Licensed Asbestos Consultant; Author, ASTM Manual on Asbestos Control; Past President. Environmental Information Association; Fellow, American Industrial Hygiene Association, USA
DR JOHN O’CONNOR, MD, Canada
RORY O’NEILL, Editor, Hazards magazine; Professor, Occupational and Environmental Health Research Group, University of Stirling, Scotland
Dr. PETER ORRIS, MD, MPH, Professor and Chief of Service, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, USA
DR DAVID OZONOFF, MD, MPH, Professor of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, USA
DR DOMYUNG PAEK, MD, MSc, ScD, Dean, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
CHRISTOPHER RICKARD, BSc, PhD, MCIC, former technical director, Polyresins Inc. (retired), Canada
DR. EDUARDO JORGE RODRIGUEZ, médico, Especialista en Medicina del Trabajo; Jefe del Programa Nacional de Salud del Trabajador de la Dirección Nacional de Determinantes de la Salud e Investigación; Coordinador de la Comision Asesora sobre el Asbesto Crisotilo, Ministerio de Salud de la Nacion, Argentina
DR. JENNIFER SASS, Ph.D., Environmental and Occupational Health Department, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
DR KYLA ELIZABETH SENTES, PhD, Public Health and Political Science, Quebec, Canada
DR IAN MCD. SIMPSON, MA, MB, Bchir, CCFP, FCFP, Canada
DOTT. MORANDO SOFFRITTI, Direttore Scientifico, Istituto Ramazzini e Segretario Generale, Collegium Ramazzini, Italy
DR COLIN L. SOSKOLNE, Professor of Epidemiology, Dept of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; Visiting Fellow, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Australia; Immediate Past-President, Canadian Society for Epidemiology and Biostatistics; Fellow, American College of Epidemiology; Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Italy
DR. SYDNEY PRICE SPARLING, BA, MDCM, Canada
DR. JERRY SPIEGEL, MA, MSc, PhD, Professor, School of Population and Public Health; Director, Global Health Research Program, Liu Institute for Global Issues, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
DR. KEN TAKAHASHI, MD, PhD, MPH, Professor of Environmental Epidemiology, IIES; Director of the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Occupational Health; Director of the International Center, University of Occupational & Environmental Health, Kitakyushu City, Japan
DR.TIM K. TAKARO, MD, MPH, MS., Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada
DR BENEDETTO TERRACINI, Professor of Cancer Epidemiology, University of Torino (retired), Italy
DR ANNIE THÉBAUD-MONY, PhD, Directeur de recherche honoraire, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), France; Specialist in occupational cancer, University Paris 13; President, Association Henri Pézerat (Santé Travail Environnement); Spokesperson for Ban Asbestos France
DR. IVANCICA TROSIC, PhD, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia
DR FERNAND TURCOTTE, MD, MPH, FRCPC, Professor Emeritus of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
DR. CATHY VAKIL, MD, CCFP, FCFP, Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada
DR ANITA VAN DER WALT, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
DR. YVONNE R.K. WATERMAN, Sc.D., LL.M., director, Waterman Legal Consultancy, The Netherlands.
PROFESSOR ANDREW WATTERSON, PhD, CSHP, Occupational and Environmental Health Research Group, University of Stirling, Scotland
DR. DAVID H WEGMAN, MD, MSc, Occupational Disease Epidemiologist; Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA
DR. LAURA S. WELCH, MD, Medical Director, CPWR – The Center for Construction Research and Training, Silver Spring MD, USA
DR. STANLEY H. WEISS, MD, Professor of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA
DR. ROBERT WINSTON, MD, FACP, FRCPC, BCCA, Abbotsford, BC, Canada
DR. ANNALEE YASSI, MD, MSc, FRCPC, Professor and Canada Research Chair, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
AerztInnen fuer eine gesunde Umwelt (Doctors for a Healthy Environment), Austria
AMAR – Environment Defense Association of Araucaria – Brazil
APROMAC – Environment Protection Association – Brazil
Asbestos Disease Awareness Organization (ADAO), USA
Asbestos Diseases Society of Australia Inc., Australia
Asbestos-related Research, Education & Advocacy Fund (AREA), Canada
Asbestos Victims Support Groups Forum, UK
Asia Monitoring Resource Centre, Hong Kong
Asian Ban Asbestos Network (A-BAN), Asia
Asian Citizens Centre for the Environment, South Korea
Association Nationale de Défense des Victimes de l’Amiante (National Association for the Defence of Victims of Asbestos), France
Asian Network for the Rights of Occupational and Environmental Victims (ANROEV)
Associação Brasileira dos Expostos ao Amianto – ABREA (Brazilan Asociation of Exposed People to Asbestos), Brazil
Associated Consulting Engineers Employees Union, Pakistan
Australian Medical Students’ Association, Australia
A Walk to Remember Victims of Asbestos, Sarnia, Canada
Ban Asbestos Network Japan (BANJAN), Japan
Ban Asbestos Network Korea (BANKO), South Korea
Barrow Trades Union Council, UK
Building Workers International
Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment, Canada
Canadian Health Coalition, Canada
Corporate Accountability International
Eco-Accord Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development, Russia
Health Consumer Protection program, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights, USA
International Ban Asbestos Secretariat, UK
International Society of Doctors for the Environment
Irish Doctors Environmental Association (IDEA), Ireland
Island Sustainability Alliance CIS Inc. (“ISACI”), Cook Islands, Southwest Pacific Ocean
London Hazards Centre, UK
Merseyside Asbestos Victim Support Group (Mavsg), UK
Mick Knighton Mesothelioma Research Fund, UK
National Toxics Network Inc., Australia
Northeast Asbestos Support and Awareness Group, UK
Occupational and Environmental Health Network of India (OEHNI)
Occupational Health and Safety Association, India
Occupational Health and Safety Centre, India
MERCURIADOS mercury patients, Spain
Pakistan Construction Federation
Pakistan Federation of Building and Wood Workers (PFBWW), Pakistan
Pan African Vision for the Environment (PAVE), Nigeria
People’s Training & Research Centre, India
Prevent Cancer Now, Canada
Saskatchewan Asbestos Disease Awareness Organization, Canada
School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Sierra Club Canada
Thailand Ban Asbestos Network (TBAN), Thailand
The Cancer Prevention and Education Society, UK
ToxicsWatch Alliance (TWA), New Delhi, India
TOXISPHERA Environmental Health Association, Brazil
Walk for Truth – Asbestos Kills. A Walk to Remember Victims of Asbestos, Canada
1 Asbestos Cement Products Manufacturers Association of India, 2012. About Us.
2 Letter from health experts to Prime Minister Harper of Canada, January 23, 2009
3 Quebec, Public Health Directors, 2011. Les directions régionales de santé publique constatent l’échec de l’utilisation sécuritaire de l’amiante chrysotile.
4 Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec, 2010. Portrait des lésions professionnelles chez les travailleurs de 45 ans et plus 1999-2008.
5 The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos, LaDou et al, Environmental Health Perspectives, volume 118, number 7, July 2010
6 Position Statement on Asbestos, JPC-SE, June 4, 2012
7 Endorsements from Organizations, JPC-SE Position Statement on Asbestos.
8 Endorsements from Individuals, JPC-SE Position Statement on Asbestos.
9 World Health Organization (WHO), 2006. Elimination of Asbestos-Related Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
10 National Programmes for Elimination of Asbestos-Related Diseases: Review and Assessment, 07-08 June 2011, Bonn, WHO Regional Office for Europe, pp 22-29, 2012, Substitutes for Asbestos Construction Products, Barry Castleman, ScD.
11 Dec. 21, 2012, New homes drive tile growth, http://www.bangkokpost.com/business/economics/327227/new-homes-drive-tile-growth.
12 Correction. The correct figure is 35 countries. The typographical error on the IBAS website, stating 15 countries, was corrected to say 35 countries on Feb 23, 2013.
13 Virta, RL, Asbestos: US Geological Survey, Asbestos Production, Trade & Consumption in 2011.
14 Charting the Changing Pattern of Asbestos Production and Use 1950-2012, Laurie Kazan-Allen, International Ban Asbestos Secretariat, Jan. 22, 2013
15 Testimony of David Bernstein in Emma Josephine Maloney Martin vs Quigley Company, Inc., District Court, Ellis County, Texas 40th Judicial District, Oct. 16, 2007. Transcript available on request.
16 Mealey’s International Asbestos Liability Report November 19, 2003, 1-9 Mealey’s Intl. Asb. Liab. Rep. 7 (2003).
17 Chrysotile Institute media release, With new supporting evidence, Quebec chrysotile is entitled to fair and balanced treatment, Sept. 9, 2003
18 Suzuki, Y, Yuen, SR, Ashley, R, Short, thin asbestos fibers contributed to the development of human malignant mesothelioma: Pathological evidence. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, 208:201-10,2005. Also Dodson,RF, Analysis and relevance of asbestos burden in tissue, 2nd ed. In: Asbestos: Risk Assessment, Epidemiology and Health. Hammar and Dodson eds., CRC Press,Boca Raton,Fl., 2011, pp 49-108.